JULY 24, 1864
THE DAILY PICAYUNE
Annual Scare on the Border.
[From the New York Tribune of
Pennsylvanians and Marylanders have now had their annual “scare.”
All the bells in the two States have been duly run; all the citizens
have duly assembled in the market places, and duly volunteered to arrive
for as many days as the rebels might choose to stay on Northern soil;
the annual “war meeting” has been held in Independence Square in
Philadelphia, and the male members of the audience have made their
yearly offer “to fly to arms;” the clergy have, as is their annual
custom, duly “worked on the fortifications under a broiling sun.”
The Governor has issued his annual call to arms, containing his annual
reminder of the necessity of driving “the insolent invader” from the
sacred soil, and letting the invader see what 25,000 undisciplined and
enraged Pennsylvanians are capable of achieving.
“reliable gentleman” and “well-known citizen” have come in from
the front, as is their wont, and made us all acquainted with the doings
of the rebel cavalry–the cattle lifting, horse stealing, house
burning, to which these gentlemen are in the habit of treating
themselves every summer during the hot weather in the neighborhood of
Philadelphia and Baltimore. In short, the annual tribute from
Pennsylvania and Maryland to the rebel commissariat had been duly paid,
and by this time Early and his raiders are across the Potomac with at
least the greater part of their booty. Of course the new levies are hard
on their track, and are “surrounding” and “cutting them off,”
and “getting in their rear,” and slaughtering them, as is their
annual custom. It is well known, that after each Pennsylvania levy en
masse, the butchery of the rebels is frightful.
there be any men in the world who are justly chargeable with all their
own misfortunes, who may be ably said to deserve the worst that may
befall them, and for whom we have neither sympathy nor pity, it is
undoubtedly the Southern traitors. But bad as they are, they are still
our countrymen; they and we have common ancestors, a common tongue,
common history, etc., etc., etc., so that it is impossible for us to
witness their exposure to the annual rising of the Pennsylvania militia
without horror and compassion. True, they are invaders, but they are
still men; and were they the hordes of Tamerlane or Genghis Khan, we
could not not avoid a shudder of pity on hearing that the “war
meeting” had assembled in Independence Square, and to hear that “the
clergy had volunteered to work on the fortifications,” and that “the
citizens were being mustered in by companies.” Fortunately the unhappy
rebels by this time know what is coming, and when they read Gov.
Curtin’s proclamation, generally try to save themselves from the
infuriated volunteers by flying to the mountains. The fate of those that
are not so prudent is, of course, awful.
we want to see now is what will happen after the rebels are fairly gone.
Will these forlorn and remorseless levies, these men of blood who have
been digging ditches and throwing up barricades round their houses, hang
up their dripping swords and return to the plough and the counter till
this time next year, or will they stand to their arms and breathe out
threatenings and slaughter against all who menace their peace during the
remainder of the year? This is a question we are all of us interested in
having answered, because, in spite of the sublimity of the spectacle
which the Pennsylvanians present when the enemy are fairly at their
doors, there is something rather painful in the state of unreadiness in
which he invariably finds them. ->
wrath is fearful, once they are fairly roused, but it must be confessed
that the difficulty of rousing tem is very great, and that a good many
sheep, cattle, hogs and greenbacks disappear while they are rubbing
their eyes and buckling
their armor on.
it is evident, must stay under arms ready to repel these raids into
Maryland and Pennsylvania. There is no means of making positively sure
that they shall never occur again. Grant may be defeated–Julius Caesar
and Napoleon were both defeated on more than one occasion. All the men
we can possibly raise for the United States army will be only too few
for the work of subduing the rebellion. Somebody must protect Northern
homes from being outraged by bands of marauders, and this I especially
and peculiarly the duty of the militia. If the militia cannot do this,
it is good for nothing, and the militia of each State is undoubtedly
bound to protect its own frontier, and hold the enemy in check until its
neighbors can come to its aid.
this is a duty which the Pennsylvanians seem very unwilling to perform.
The first organized bodies of militia which show themselves in this
State, during the annual scare, are generally from New York or New
Jersey. We really should like to know whether this is going to occur
again, and whether, now that the danger is past for the present, Gov.
Curtin’s 25,000 en are going to go home quietly, return their muskets
to the arsenals, and wait for the actual appearance of the enemy before
taking arms again?
in the South.
[From the Richmond Whig, July
Rid of the Old Women.
congratulate the community upon the fact that there is now a prospect of
the city being relieved of its superabundance of old women. The military
authorities have determined to give passports to all the old women who
may wish to go to Yankee land. Joy go with them.
Meal for the Poor.
to the destruction of the different lines of railway leading to the
city, the regular supply of meal for the poor has failed. It is proposed
to relieve the present necessities of the poor by subscriptions of
[From the Richmond Examiner, July 9.]
about one hundred of the Yankee deserters held at the Castle were
transferred to the Libby, and their status changed from deserters to
that of prisoners of war. It is at last the deliberate conviction of the
Confederate Government that deserters cannot become of any services to
us, either in the army or workshop, and that it is better to get man for
man by exchange of them under the cartel.
CHARLESTON MERCURY (SC)
Decline in the Shipping of the United States.
Florida, while sending to the
bottom some Yankee vessels, has been the means of bringing to the top
some statistics which show a startling decline in the shipping of the
nation. From the first place in the maritime world the United States has
descended to about the fifth. The New York World
1860 the total tonnage of the United States, exclusive of whaling and
steam tonnage, was five million two hundred and nineteen thousand and
eighty-one tons. In 1864 it is in the neighborhood of one million six
hundred and seventy-four thousand five hundred and sixteen tons. That
is, we have lost in four year three million five hundred and four
thousand six hundred and sixty-five tons.1
We say nothing of the loss through the involuntary idleness of our
vessels–nothing of the number of ships that lie rotting at our wharves
ad at foreign ports. We would simply ask, at the rat given above, how
long a time must elapse
before our commercial marine will be entirely wiped out, and the
American flag unknown in any foreign port, or even on our own seas, save
as seen upon ships-of-war? From being actually greater than that of any
other nation on the face of the earth, our tonnage has dwindled below
the standard of the third rate maritime powers.
than nine hundred vessels that in 1860 were owned by citizens of the
United States, and floated the Stars and Stripes, are now in the hands
of foreign owners and sailing under foreign flags. On Thursday morning
last we published a list of the names and owners of six hundred of these
vessels–having an aggregate tonnage of three hundred and twenty eight
thousand six hundred and sixty-five tons–sold during the single year
of 1863 to British owners, as compiled from British authority, and to
which list the reader can easily turn. Foreigners will not ship goods in
American bottoms, and so our vessels either rot in port or become the
property of people of other nationality. Not a single American steamer
crosses the ocean at the present time–our steamships doing a pitiful
duty as coasters, and even then with no sense of security. Foreign
steamers carry our mails and freight, and transport such of our citizens
whom business or pleasure calls upon a foreign shore.
Characteristic Yankee Trick.–It
appears from the annexed note that a quantity of forged Confederate
bonds of £20 each have been put in circulation in this country:
have discovered that a large amount of counterfeit Confederate $100
bonds have been sent here from New York and sold. I know of one batch of
$72,000 sold here to go to Holland. I have no doubt an enormous amount
has been put in circulation. Of course, the trade will continue. It
certainly is the duty of somebody to make this thing known, and to
caution the public to avoid all bonds coming from doubtful sources. I
have now before me five $100 counterfeits, purporting to be of July,
1862 per Act of Congress, August 19, 1861, and dated 7th and 8th of May,
1862. The engraver of the genuine (B. Duncan) is here, and pronounces
them counterfeit beyond question.”–London
Times (City Article), June 15.
Rebels at Hagerstown.
following interesting statement of the “outrageous doings” of the
rebels at Hagerstown is taken from the Chambersburg (Pa.) Repository:
Tuesday afternoon the rebel advance drove our pickets into the town. On
Wednesday afternoon General McCausland, the successor General Jenkins,
entered the town with about one thousand five hundred cavalry. He levied
twenty thousand dollars upon the town, and seized Mr. Thomas A. Belt, a
silversmith, and, we believe, a member of the Council, to be held as a
hostage for the payment of the money. The money was raised and paid in
Maryland funds–rebel currency being contemptuously refused. There were
large Government stores in various places in town, and General
McCausland didn’t seem to have an appetite for applying the torch, so
he placed Mr. Isaac Nesbit, Clerk of the Courts, under heavy bonds to
have the stores destroyed. ->
bond was given, and the stores burned after the rebels departed. An
additional ransom of one thousand five hundred dollars was paid by
Messrs. Nesbit, Hamilton, and a few others to save the warehouses of
Messrs. Thurston & Eichelberger, as their destruction would have
periled private property seriously. Zeller & Co., having no
Government stores in their warehouse, it was not disturbed, although
taken possession of by the rebel officers. There was a large amount of
private corn, oats, &c., in it; but, when they were satisfied that
it was all owned by individuals, it was not moved or injured. . .
that Mr. Zeller was one of the most earnest Union men in the place, he
was treated rather fairly. The Government stores, however, more than
supplied their wants, and any injury to Mr. Zeller would have been
wanton destruction of private property. . . About 2 a.m.
on Thursday morning, McCausland’s command left.
parties still hovered in and about the town, and about daylight of the
same day, Gen. Imboden came in with about one hundred and eighty men, to
supply his command with certain articles not to be had conveniently in
the dominions of Jeff Davis. The hat store of Messrs. Ronskulp and
Updegraff, and the shoe store of Mr. Knoble, did a large trade with
them–the trade being wholly on the side of the rebels, and Judge
Small’s show store narrowly escaped by the rebels being called off
suddenly by the startling cry that “the Yankees are upon us!” The
only property burned was the rail road water tank and wood house.
reporter who witnessed “the whole rebel movement in Hagerstown,” and
was present at several conversations between Gen. McCausland and the
spokesman of the Council and citizens was Col. Schley, aided by Mr.
Seyster and several others who occupy a conservative position–so
conservative, indeed, that they lean a little over perpendicular on the
rebel side. When the demand was made for twenty thousand dollars,
Messrs. Schley and Seyster called upon General McCausland and declared
their inability to raise the money and the clothing. The insurgent chief
answered them in the following rather emphatic than poetical manner:
“By ---, if you don’t have the money and clothing by half-past eight
o’clock this evening, I will burn every house in town, if it costs me
my own life and that of all my command!” Schley was almost equally
emphatic in returning compliments with the rebel chief. He intimated
that he was a thief and a freebooter, but it did not disturb the
guerrilla’s equanimity, nor lessen his taste for plunder. The demand
was for fifteen hundred suits of clothing in addition to the twenty
thousand dollars, but the clothing could not be found.
rebel General was inexorable, and whether the clothing was there or not,
he must have it. Finally, all the clothing that could be found was
gathered up–including children’s shoes and many other articles
entirely useless to the army–and when about everything was got that
could be found, [the] “Southern brethren” of “My Maryland” were
content. It was remarkable that they made no discrimination between
rebel sympathizers and Union men. Mr. Bell, druggist, who has a brother
in the rebel army, and who is said to lean that way himself, had his
stock “confiscated” in the most approved freebooter’s style, and
when a rebel sympathizer expostulated with them for robbing their
friends–one who had a brother in the service–they politely answered
that if Mr. Bell was their friend, he should be with his brother in
their army. The rebel sympathizers generally were very indignant at the
indiscriminate propensities for stealing manifested by their
constitutional friends, and curses loud and deep might have been heard
on every corner from the disappointed and humiliated allies of treason.
JULY 26, 1864
SPRINGFIELD REPUBLICAN (MA)
the 100 Day Boys at Readville.
July 23, 1864.
is a funny place. It is a hamlet on the Providence railroad, supposed to
be in the town of Dedham, ten miles south of Boston. Perhaps we should
define the location better by saying that it is near Punkeypog. Of
course, you know where Punkeypog is. Punkeypog has a pond and several
houses. Boston is in sight of Blue Hill, which is at Punkeypog. We had
the good fortune to witness a pic-nic of the Punkeypogians at the pond,
the other day, where the wit of Punkeypog was festively eating cake, and
the beauty of Punkeypog singing “When This Cruel War is Over.”
Readville station contains our headquarters, and the headquarters
contain a living brigadier, a colonel and
a provost marshal, with the attendant post adjutant
quartermaster, &c. A mile or so away is the camp of which this
station is the visible head. Here is seen a most beautiful illustration
of a great military principle. The profundity which locates a camp in
one part of the country and its headquarters in another is admirable,
and so favorable to the great object of military education, which is to
accomplish the smallest results with the greatest labor. The companies,
when they arrive, amuse themselves with backing all their clothing and
supplies from the depot to the camp. And then the circumlocution of
carrying such a distance a sergeant’s morning report, or an order for
a corporal’s guard, is most magnificent. Greenhorns find fault, but
never a military man. A soldier, who has handled red tape at Washington,
would never be troubled by anything one state could do. The great test
of a tried and true soldier is not enthusiasm, nor endurance, nor
precision, nor obedience, but simple serenity. We are serene.
“material” of the camp is younger than is usual, with less
“style” among the line officers than would have been seen three
years ago, most of them being veterans. Boys make the best soldiers if
they are not so boyish as to break down physically. They obey the orders
of young officers better, are more enthusiastic, and anxious for
adventure. They are livelier, braver and more unquestioning than
middle-aged men. In regard to men, there is nothing else different from
all other camps. We have the usual number of recruits with feet so large
that they can’t right face without breaking the ranks, and amateur
buglers who by the noise they make might be mistaken for fish-peddlers.
that can be said about the time of our departure is that we go when we
get ready–or rather when Boston gets ready.
Drouth Broken.—Thanks to a Providence that is always better
to us than our fears, the drouth that was almost without a parallel,
both in length and severity, has been broken at last. It was a rare and
pleasant sight to see the rain descending all day Monday in copious and
gentle showers, and there were very few who were not profoundly grateful
for the weeping clouds. The damage done to the growing crops by the long
continued drouth has been very great, though in many instances greatly
hay crop throughout New England was hardly half of an average crop in
quantity, though the quality was good and the weather has been such that
it was stored in the best possible order. The crops at the West have
been generally good in spite of the drouth, and now that the rain has
come in time to revive corn and potatoes, which were beginning to
languish, it doesn’t look as though we had been entirely forgotten and
forsaken by the Higher Powers.
failing springs will be replenished, and the comfort of both man and
beast will be materially increased. The numerous and destructive fires
that have recently occurred–one of the most disastrous of them in our
own midst–were all far more distressing than they would have been in
an ordinary season and with a fair supply of water. Numerous and fervent
were the prayers offered Sunday for rain, for everybody felt that the
continuance of health and the security of property depended altogether
upon relief from the clouds. The rain came, and let all men rejoice.
Warning to the Inland Towns.—A citizen of Western
Massachusetts writes to the Republican
from Boston as follows:
towns on the coast of Massachusetts propose to escape the draft by a
process which I think it becomes us of the rural districts to
understand, and which I hope you will expose fully in your paper. During
the first year of the war, when business was dull, many sailors, having
no residence nor any fixed place of abode, shipped in the navy. They
shipped wherever they happened to be, if there was a shipping-office
handy. Many shipped at Boston, New Bedford, Cape Ann and other places.
Probably not one in twenty, if as many, ever was in any proper or legal
sense a resident of the place where shipped. It is now proposed to
convert enough of these men into citizens, by certificates of selectmen
and municipal authorities, to exempt the towns and cities where they
happened to ship from the coming draft. These men ought no doubt to be
counted on the quota of the state, and only bona fide citizens of any
town be counted on the town quota. The manufacture of citizens to order
ought not to be an exclusive privilege of a few maritime places; nor
ought any town, seacoast or inland, by procuring a list of names from a
shipping agent, to be allowed to figure itself out of the draft, as
several of the coast towns expect to do. The commissioners, who are
appointed to attend to this business, ought to understand how it is, and
act in good faith with the inland towns, and not exempt one place
because the municipal authorities bring in a list of names obtained from
shipping agents, and swear that to the best of their knowledge and
belief the men were residents of the town or city that they
JULY 27, 1864
HAMPSHIRE PATRIOT & STATE GAZETTE
Confederate forces lately in occupation of Maryland appear to have made
a safe retreat with all their vast plunder. The telegraph has given
reports of severe conflicts with them and the capture of a large number
of their wagons, but these appear to have had no foundation.
Army of the Potomac remains “quiet,” the reports say. No important
movements have been made of late, so far as the public have been
the West we have reports of active operations and severe fighting. It is
stated that on the 20th, Gen. Hood, having succeeded Gen. Johnston in
command of the Confederate forces at Atlanta, made an assault upon the
corps of Howard and Hooker, but was repulsed with loss. Our loss was
2000. On the 21st, Gen. McPherson, commanding our left wing, extended
his line to the west and south of Atlanta, and on the 22d he was
assaulted by a heavy force of the enemy and was driven back, but the
enemy were finally repulsed with great loss and driven into their works
in front of the city. During the battle Gen. McPherson was killed by a
sharpshooter, and his command devolved upon Gen. Logan.
expedition from Memphis, under Gen. A. J. Smith, sometime since sent
against Gen. Forrest in Northern Alabama, returned to Memphis last week.
The report says they “whipped the enemy five times,” and returned
for want of supplies. Their loss is reported at 500, and the rebel loss
is guessed to have been 3000.
large portion of Missouri appears to be overrun by guerrillas. They have
recently been especially active and destructive, and our Government has
not sufficient force there to clean them out. One of their chiefs, Col.
Thornton, is said to have a force of 15,000 in Caldwell county.
with Rebels.”–The Boston Journal’s
special dispatch from Washington, July 20, says:
Kirke, author of “Among the Pines,” and Col. Jaquess of the 8th
Illinois regiment, have just returned from Richmond, whither they have
been on a secret mission of political importance. They were received and
treated with marked respect by the Confederate authorities during their
stay in Richmond.
it seems that Lincoln has been “negotiating with rebels!” What does
this mean? For three years his supporters have constantly denounced all
idea of negotiation with the Richmond authorities; yet now we are told
that Lincoln has secretly been negotiating with them. In the account of
his “mission” it is stated that these agent of the Administration
remained three days in Richmond, where they were quartered at the
“crack hotel” and “fared sumptuously every day.” They were fed
on chicken, turkey, mutton and all the viands of a well-appointed hotel,
and entertained with fie brandies and costly wines,” at the expense of
the rebels. They had “two prolonged interviews with President Davis”
and with his Secretary of State, Mr. Benjamin, and other officers. They
also visited the prisons and “were agreeably disappointed by the
comparatively comfortable condition in which they found our Union
captives.” They describe Jeff Davis as “hale and hearty in
appearance.” The precise object of this mission is not stated, but it
is alleged that they met with considerable success in impressing their
views upon Mr. Davis, who was very “warm and cordial” in his
expressions of respect for their character and aims.
Negro Trade.–It will be seen that the Legislature has
authorized the Governor to enter into the Negro trade in the South–to
purchase Negroes at $500 a head to fill our quota in the army. This is
well, as things now are. Next to the abolitionists, the Negro is most
properly called upon to fight this was for his benefit. But there seems
to be much room for doubt as to the success of this new Negro traffic.
In this business the first step is the same as the first in the famous
recipe for cooking a rabbit, viz: “First, catch the rabbit.” So
here, the first step in Negro recruiting is to catch the Negro. Now it
is feared that this will be no easy matter. It is reported that Negroes
are not very plenty in the territory held by our forces. Gen. Grant has
found a few, and Gen. Sherman reports a scarcity in the country held by
him; and other sections have been pretty well “cleaned out,” and it
is doubtful whether this new Negro speculation will pay.
Besides, it is said Gen. Sherman protests against these Negro-traders
going into his department, on the ground that they will increase the
number of idle non-combatants to feed without rendering any service. It
is probable that the true reason is, he knows these fellows will be
political emissaries sent to make votes for Old Abe, whose presence and
proceedings will stir up strife and make trouble in the army. Other
commanders will doubtless follow his example. On the whole, therefore,
it is very doubtful whether this new Negro speculation will pay.
Federal soldier who escaped from Americus, Ga., where the rebels now
send Federal prisoners, reports that a stockade in an open field,
without shade, and partly a swamp, contains nineteen thousand Union
soldiers, without a blanket, overcoat or cooking utensil.–Boston
is probably an exaggerated statement;2
yet there is no doubt that our prisoners in the rebel hands, probably
40,000 in number, suffer greatly. And the people will naturally ask why
they are not exchanged, since we have some 60,000 rebels in our hands.
The answer is, because the “everlasting Negro” is in the way. Our
unfeeling rulers will not consent to exchange white men for white, but
insist upon having Negroes put upon the same footing with white men.
This the Confederate authorities will not consent to; and so our poor
soldiers are left to suffer as described.
Exhaustion.–Allison, the historian, ascribes the overthrow
of Napoleon to his overtaxing the energies of the French by diverting so
large a proportion of them into the army. He says a nation cannot stand
a diversion of more than one to one hundred. During the past year one in
thirty-three of our population have been drawn into the army. How long
will it take, at this rate, to exhaust the North?
PITTSFIELD SUN (MA)
correspondence on our first page–relative to negotiations for a
cessation of hostilities between the Northern and Southern States, and
the initiation of measures for a permanent peace–will be read with
interest and in some
particulars regret it.
appears from an article in the Rochester
Democrat that previous to the correspondence published, Mr. George
N. Sanders wrote from the Clifton House, Niagara, to Horace Greeley,
stating that the Hon. C. C. Clay, Jr., of Alabama, Hon. Jacob Thompson,
of Mississippi, and Hon. J. P. Holcombe, of Virginia, were there, duly
recognized Commissioners of the Confederate Government, and desired to
know what terms could be made for terminating the war between the two
sections. He added, however, that these commissioners were not specially
authorized to negotiate for a cessation of hostilities or a restoration
of the Union, but that they would like to have an informal conference
with such persons as the U. States Government might indicate to meet
them. These facts having been presented to Mr. Lincoln, he requested Mr.
Greeley to act in the matter as he thought advisable under the peculiar
circumstances, and stated that he (Mr. L.) should at any time be pleased
to receive propositions from those who had been in arms against the
government for a return to their allegiance and duty as citizens of the
Union. He also stated that he should be pleased to see the Union
restored upon any terms consistent with the present and future safety,
welfare and honor of the government. Mr. Greeley. Having settled all
preliminaries with Mr. Lincoln, proceeded to Niagara and took up
quarters at the International Hotel. A correspondence was at once opened
with the commissioners, and, as a final result, they made the following
propositions, and gave it as their opinion that the Richmond Government
would approve and ratify the same. The restoration of the Union in statu
quo upon this basis:
Negroes which have been actually freed by the war, to be secured in such
Negroes at present held as slaves to remain so.
war debt of both parties to be paid by the United States.
old doctrine of State rights to be recognized in reconstructing the
proposition was laid before Mr. Lincoln by Mr. Greeley. The President at
once telegraphed to Mr. Greeley the terms upon which he would propose a
settlement and reconstruction, and which are given in the dispatch “to whom it may concern,” in which the President proclaims that
the “abandonment of slavery”
is a condition precedent to peace! The Constitution authorizes the
President (to use the words of the Albany Atlas
enforce the laws, to uphold the Constitution, to suppress
insurrection–but he puts himself above the Constitution, and in the
character of an infamous despot, announces that States shall not return
to the Union, that rebels shall not become loyal citizens, until the
State constitutions are altered, and slavery abolished. Where does he
get his authority to make such a condition? Not from the
Constitution–nowhere, except in his own despotic will.
war is now confessedly waged to abolish Negro slavery. For this our
fellow-citizens are dragged to the field of battle; for this their
bodies rot and their bones bleach upon Southern soil; for this a
half-million more are to be conscripted for privation, wounds and death.
Will the people give Mr. Lincoln a new four years lease to desolate the
country and murder its noble sons and brothers–and all on a quixotic
crusade against Negro slavery?
the correspondence which we publish–as every where–Mr. Lincoln
appears as the marplot of all effort in the right direction. Providence
may, perhaps, chastise the nation, by permitting him to curse it till
the end of his present term, but God grant that the infliction may not
be longer extended.”
Jim Crow of the N. Y. Times is
constrained to say the following.3
It is both significant and important: “We do not mean to say that it
will be eventually found possible to end the war and restore the Union
without the ‘abandonment of slavery;’ but we do say that this
abandonment need not be exacted by the President as a condition without
which he will not receive or consider proposals for peace. The people do
not require him to insist upon any such condition. Neither his oath of
office, nor his constitutional duty, nor his personal or official
consistency, requires him to insist upon it. That is one of the
questions to be considered and arranged when the terms of peace come to
be discussed. It is not a subject on which terms can be imposed by the
Government, without consultation, without agreement, or without
The War News.
news from General Sherman’s army indicates that he has possession of a
part of Atlanta, and is fighting to obtain undisputed possession of the
whole of it. In one of these engagements, on Friday, Maj. General McPherson
was killed. General Sherman lost a most able officer, and one who can
scarcely be replaced. General McPherson was a Major General of volunteers,
and Brigadier General in the regular army, having been promoted to the
vacancy occasioned by the retirement of General Harney. He entered the army
from West Point in 1853, and at
the commencement of the war was a captain of engineers.
is evidently considerable dissatisfaction among the rebels at the
substitutions of Gen. Hood for Johnston, and if disaster befalls them they
will probably inveigh against the Richmond junta as loudly as they did when
Pemberton lost Vicksburg, and charge the misfortune to the incompetence of
the general. They now entertain hopes that Gen. Sherman’s rear will be
cut, and that he will thus be compelled to relax his grasp upon Atlanta. All
accounts agree, however, in stating that his rear is well protected, and
that it is the rebel rear and flank which is endangered. General Sherman
fought a battle in front of Atlanta on Wednesday last, in which he achieved
a decided success. The enemy was met in an open field, and defeated, leaving
four hundred dead and four thousand wounded upon the ground.
Baltimore correspondent of the N. Y. World
predicts a grand invasion by the rebels soon, with a view to effect the
capture of Washington, which was not the purpose of the last invasion. Also
that Pennsylvania and Ohio, or Indiana, are to be invaded at an early date,
and the theatre of war transferred to those States from the South.
guerrilla attack has been made upon Henderson, Ky., a few miles below
Evansville, Ind., on the Ohio river. Gunboats have been sent to protect the
is alleged that a plot has been discovered in St. Louis having for its
object the establishment of a northwestern confederacy and a renewal of the
steamboat burning on the western waters. Several of the alleged ringleaders
have been arrested.
from the Army of the Potomac represent the usual skirmishing and shelling in
progress. The statement that General Sheridan has gone on another cavalry
raid is incorrect; this branch of the service having to be rested and
remounted ere entering upon another expedition.
people of Rockville and Montgomery Counties, Maryland, were, on Saturday and
early Sunday, greatly alarmed in the belief that the enemy were making
another invasion into their State. Numbers of citizens came into Washington
declaring that they had seen the invaders, that they had artillery, cavalry,
and infantry. The probability is, however, that these frightened Marylanders
saw the Union troops returning from the pursuit of General Early’s column,
and, mistaking them for the raiders, were not slow in making known the cause
of their fright.
is reported that Gen. Rousseau has captured Montgomery, the capital of
Alabama. If this is true, a most important success has been attained, which
will greatly enhance the value of Gen. Sherman’s operations.
cavalry forces connected with Gen. Sherman’s army have, it appears, raided
over all the railroads in Alabama, to the east and west of Montgomery, and
as far as Covington. The work of destruction has probably been thoroughly
Slocum’s expedition has returned to Vicksburg, after defeating Wirt Adams
at Grand Gulf on the 17th. The rebels met with severe loss, and retreated,
leaving their dead and wounded on the field.
Alexander H. Stephens.
is well known that Alexander H. Stephens, now Vice-President of the
Confederacy, at first set himself resolutely against the rebellion. His
utterances at that time, so terribly confirmed by what has since taken
place, deserve record as showing its utterly inexcusable folly and
guilt. We think we have printed his speech before, but some may not have
read it all, and others will be glad to reperuse it, noting the gradual
and certain fulfilling of his worst predictions. In the Georgia
convention of January, 1861, pending the question of secession, he
step, secession, once taken can never be recalled, and all the baleful
and withering consequences that must follow, as you will see, will rest
on this convention for all coming time. When we and our posterity shall
see our lovely South desolated by the demon of war which this act of
yours will inevitably provoke, when our green fields and waving harvests
shall be trodden down by a murderous soldiery, and the fiery car of war
sweeps over our land, our temples of justice laid in ashes and every
horror and desolation upon us; who, but him who shall have given his
vote for this unwise and ill-timed measure shall be held to a strict
account for this suicidal act by the present generation, and be cursed
and execrated by all posterity, in all coming time, for the wide and
desolating ruin that will inevitably follow this act you now propose to
I entreat you, and consider for a moment what reasons you can give that
will satisfy yourselves in calmer moments? What reasons can you give to
your fellow-sufferers in the calamity that it will bring upon us? What
reasons can you give to the nations of the earth to justify it?
will be calm and deliberate judges of this case, and to what cause, or
one overt-act can you point on which to rest the plea of justification?
What right has the North assailed? Of what interest has the South been
invaded? What justice has been denied? And what claim founded in justice
and right has been unsatisfied? Can any of you name to-day one
governmental act of wrong deliberately and purposely done by the
government at Washington, of which the South has a right to complain? I
challenge an answer.
the other hand, let me show the facts (and believe me, gentlemen, I am
not here the advocate of the North, but I am here the friend, the firm
friend and lover of the South and her institutions, and for this reason
I speak thus plainly and faithfully for yours, mine, and every other
man's interest, the words of truth and soberness), of which I wish you
to judge, and I will only state facts which are clear and undeniable,
and which now stand in the authentic records of the history of our
country. When we of the South demanded the slave trade, or the
importation of Africans for the cultivation of our lands, did they not
yield the right for twenty years? When we asked a three-fifths
representation in Congress for our section was it not granted? When we
demanded the return of any fugitive from justice, or the recovery of
those persons owing labor or allegiance, was it not incorporated in the
Constitution, and again ratified and strengthened in the fugitive slave
law of 1850? Do you reply that in many instances they have violated this
law and have not been faithful to their engagements? As individuals and
local committees they may have done so, but not by the sanction of
government, for that has always been true to the Southern interests.
Again, look at another fact. When we asked that more territory should be
added that we might spread the institution of slavery did they not yield
to our demands by giving us Louisiana, Florida and Texas out of which
four States have been carved, and ample territory left for four more to
be added in due time, if you do not by this unwise and impolitic act
destroy this hope, and perhaps by it lose all and have your last slave
wrenched from you by stern military rule, or by the vindictive decrees
of a universal emancipation which may reasonably be expected to follow.
again gentlemen, what have we to gain by this proposed change of our
relation to the general government? We have always had the control of it
and can yet have if we remain in it and are as united as we have been.
We have had a majority of the presidents chosen from the South as well
as the control and management of most of those chosen from the North. We
have had sixty years of Southern Presidents to their twenty-four, thus
controlling the executive department. ->
of the judges of the supreme court, we have had eighteen from the South
and but eleven from the North. Although nearly four-fifths of the
judicial business has arisen in the free States, yet a majority of the
court has been from the South. This we have required
so as to guard against any interpretation of the constitution
unfavorable to us. In like manner we have been equally watchful in the
legislative branch of the government. In choosing the presiding
Presidents (pro tem.) of the Senate we have had twenty-four and
they only eleven; speakers of the house we have had twenty-three and
they twelve. While the majority of the representatives, from their
greater population, have always been from the North, yet we have
generally secured the speaker because he to a great extent shapes and
controls the legislation of the country.
have we had less control in every other department of the general
government. Attorney-Generals we have had 14, while the North have had
but five. Foreign ministers we have had 86, and they but 54. While
three-fourths of the business which demands diplomatic agents abroad is
clearly from the free States because of their greater commercial
interests, we have, nevertheless, had the principal embassies so as to
secure the world's markets for our cotton, tobacco and sugar, on the
best possible terms. We have had a vast majority of the higher officers
of both army and navy, while a larger proportion of the soldiers and
sailors were drawn from the Northern States. Equally so of clerks,
auditors, and comptrollers, filling the executive department; the
records show for the last 50 years that of the 3,000 thus employed we
have had more than two-thirds, while we have only one-third of the white
population of the Republic. Again, look at another fact, and one, be
assured, in which we have a great and vital interest; it is that of
revenue or means of supporting government. From official documents we
learn that more than three-fourths of the revenue collected has been
raised from the North.
now while you have the opportunity to contemplate carefully and candidly
these important things. Look at another necessary branch of government,
and learn from stern statistical facts how matters stand in that
department, I mean the mail and post-office privileges that we now enjoy
under the General Government, as it has been for years past. The expense
for the transportation of the mail in the free States was by the report
of the postmaster-general for 1860, a little over $13,000,000 while the
income was $19,000,000. But in the Slave States the transportation of
the mail was $14,716,000, and the revenue from the mail only $8,000,265,
leaving a deficit of $6,715,735 to be supplied by the North for our
accommodation, and without which we must have been cut off from this
most essential branch of the government.
out of view for the present the countless millions of dollars you must
expend in a war with the North, with tens of thousands of your brothers
slain in battle, and offered up as sacrifices on the altar of your
ambition--for what, I ask again? Is it for the overthrow of the American
Government, established by our common ancestry, cemented and built up by
their sweat and blood, and founded on the broad principles of right,
justice and humanity? I must declare to you here, as I have often done
before, and it has also been declared by the greatest and wisest
statesmen and patriots of this and other lands, that the American
Government is the best and freest of all governments, the most equal in
its rights, the most just in its decisions, the most lenient in its
measures, and the most inspiring in its principles to elevate the race
of men that the sun of heaven ever shone upon.
for you to attempt to overthrow such a government as this under which we
have lived for more than three-quarters of a century, in which we have
gained our wealth, our standing as a nation, our domestic safety while
the elements of peril are around us with peace and tranquility
accompanied with unbounded prosperity and rights unassailed is the
height of madness, folly and wickedness to which I will neither lend my
sanction nor my vote.”
JULY 30, 1864
WEEKLY REGISTER (CT)
Then and Now.
any one now speaks against the draft, by which persons, whether minors,
apprentices of not, may be conscripted into the army of the United
States, he is in danger of being bastilled in Fort Lafayette. But during
the war of 1812, a war for “free trade and sailors’ rights,” when
it was proposed in Congress to pass a conscription law not half so
exacting as the present one, the late Chief Justice Daggett, who was
then a Senator from this State, denounced the proposition as
unconstitutional and oppressive, and declared in the U. S. Senate
Chamber that if it was enacted it would be resisted in the New England
States as an unconstitutional enactment. For this he was applauded as a
statesman and a patriot by all the leading federal papers, and by none
more so than by the Journal of this city and the Courant
of Hartford, which now denounce such doctrines as the worst sort of
when Congress passed a law which authorized the enlistment of minors
into the army of the United States, without the consent of their
parents, guardians or masters, the State of Connecticut was almost up in
arms against it. The same Journal
and Courant which now advocate the conscripting of minors of twenty
years of age, whether the parent or guardian consents or not, then
denounced the law as an unconstitutional interference with the domestic
relations of the several States. Connecticut, in those days, under
similar auspices, led off in actual and open nullification, and set the
example which has been so mischievously followed by South Carolina and
other rebel States. The Legislature of this State, at its special
session held January, 1815, while Jackson was winning immortal laurels
at New Orleans, passed the following act of nullification:
it enacted, &c., That if any person knowing any one to be a minor,
shall persuade him to depart from this State with intent to enlist into
the army of the United States, without the consent of his parent,
guardian or master, on conviction thereof before the Superior Court,
shall be sentenced to pay to the treasurer of this State a fine not
exceeding five hundred dollars, or to be imprisoned not exceeding one
section imposed a fine not exceeding one hundred dollars, and
imprisonment not exceeding three months, for advertising for such
enlistments, or for permitting any such advertisement to be stuck upon
any one’s house, store, shop or premises. The law of Congress by the
same State act was denounced as “repugnant to the spirit of the
Constitution of the United States, and an unauthorized interference with
the laws and rights of this State.”
modern doctrine of “military necessity,” which covers all that the
administration wants to be done, was not heard of in those days, though
the country was invaded by a foreign enemy.
Little of Everything.
In France, the waste steam from the locomotive is made to heat the cars
in the train behind. It is conducted from the escape pipes through
tubes, which inside of the cars are of copper, but outside are of
vulcanized India rubber, with couplings which can be readily managed.
United States has one square mile of coal field to every fifteen square
miles of territory; Great Britain one to every thirty miles of surface;
Belgium one to every twenty-two and a half, and France one to every two
hundred miles of surface. ->
manufacturers are suffering for anthratic coal. What is dug there is
sent to Bermuda for the Confederate blockade runners, and the United
States has stopped the exportation from our territory.
new gunpowder is proposed in England, to consist of forty-seven parts of
chlorate of potash, thirty-eight parts of ferrocyanide of potassium, and
five parts sulphur. The ingredients after being first pulverized are
mixed into a paste with water; when dry, about ten parts of catouche are
added, and the compound is complete. One of its peculiar features is
that it may be so moulded that the entire charge shall constitute a
solid mass, thus greatly facilitating the manufacture of cartridges.
was one day with a friend, when he observed a poor dog that had been
killed, lying in the gutter. Muggins paused and gazed intently at the
animal, and at last said, “Here is another shipwreck.” “Shipwreck!
Where?” “There, a bark that’s lost forever.” His companion
growled and passed on.
Colonel of one of the regiments attached to the Army of the Potomac was
recently complaining at an evening party that, from the ignorance and
inattention of the officers, he was obliged to do the duty of the
regiment. Said he, “I am my own major, my own captain, my own
lieutenant, and my own sergeant, and”–“Your own trumpeter,” said
a lady present.
officer in the army who has paid much attention to the matter, states it
as a well ascertained fact that three-fourths of all the dismissals of
officers from the army were caused, directly or indirectly, by the use
of whisky. Many of the resignations of officers have the same origins.
are in Massachusetts nearly one hundred thousand more women than there
are men–and just as many men who now heartily wish they were women.
number of Federal prisoners at Andersonville, Ga., is upwards of 27,000.
An addition of five acres has been made to the enclosure in which they
are confined, but even with this extension the place is much too
crowded. The mortality is large, being from fifty to sixty a day.
gentleman who, a few days ago, was wandering over the ground recently
occupied by a portion of Gen. Early’s forces engaged in the “siege
of Washington,” picked up the note book of a Confederate soldiers
containing, among other matters, the following bit of lyrical poetry:
Meade to Lee,
“Can you tell me,
In the shortest style of writing,
When people will
All get their fill
Of this big job of fighting?”
Quoth Lee to Meade,
“I can, indeed,–
I’ll tell you in a minute–
Are made to enter in it.”
difference is actually 3,544,565, not the stated 3,504,665. At least
spelling it out camouflages the expected mistake in arithmetic.
is not. This is Andersonville, and the facts cited by the Boston Journal are accurate.
term Jim Crow is believed to have originated around 1830 when a white,
minstrel show performer, Thomas “Daddy” Rice, blackened his face
with charcoal paste or burnt cork and danced a ridiculous jig while
singing the lyrics to the song, “Jump Jim Crow.” Rice created this
character after seeing (while traveling in the South) a crippled,
elderly black man (or some say a young black boy) dancing and singing a
song ending with these chorus words: “Wheel
about and turn about and do this so, / Every
time I wheel about, I jump Jim Crow.” Some
historians believe that a Mr. Crow owned the slave who inspired Rice's
act–thus the reason for the Jim Crow term in the lyrics. In any case,
Rice incorporated the skit into his minstrel act, and by the 1850s the
“Jim Crow” character had become a standard part of the minstrel show
scene in America. (Source)
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